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Quintessence Int 36 (2005), No. 2     3. Jan. 2005
Quintessence Int 36 (2005), No. 2  (03.01.2005)

Page 119-137


Risk stratification and dental management of the patient with cardiovascular diseases. Part I: Etiology, epidemiology, and principles of medical management
Steinhauer, Tad/Bsoul, Samer A./Terezhalmy
The heart pumps blood through a system of blood vessels under the control of an electric conduction system to deliver oxygen to all cells of the body. When the blood volume becomes greater than the limited volume capacity of the vascular system, the patient develops hypertension. When the myocardium does not get enough oxygen because of coronary artery disease, the patient will experience angina pectoris. If oxygen deprivation to the myocardium persists, the patient may develop myocardial infarction. When the conduction system malfunctions, arrhythmias occur and the heart is unable to pump blood through the vascular system at a regular rate and rhythm. When the heart is no longer able to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body for oxygen, the patient is said to have developed heart failure. In addition, many of the above conditions can lead to thromboembolic complications. These cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States and most other Western countries. In the United States alone, more than 1 million annual deaths and as many as three times that number of serious consequences can be attributed to these conditions. To provide care to patients with cardiovascular disease, oral health care providers must understand the disease, its treatment, and its impact on the patient's ability to undergo and respond to dental care.

Keywords: cardiac arrhythmia, cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, dental treatment, heart failure, hypertension, medical management, thromboembolic disorders