The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro microleakage of a new dentinal bonding system, not yet released in the United States, to the microleakage of two first-generation bonding agents. Simulated Class V cavities were prepared in freshly extracted bovine incisors and restored with the appropriate composite resin-bonding agent combination. Restorations were thermocycled and examined for microleakage at 24 hours and 60 days. Comparison of the materials revealed no statistically significant difference in microleakage scores at the gingival or incisal margins after 24 hours. However, the first-generation bonding agents exhibited significantly more microleakage at the gingival margin than did the new bonding system after 60 days. No significant increase in microleakage was measured at the incisal margin for any of the materials after 60 days. In contrast, all materials exhibited a significant increase in leakage at the gingival margin after 60 days. No correlation between microleakage and polymerization shrinkage or coefficients of thermal expansion of the composite resins could be established.