The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of several factors on the hardness of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (hybrid ionomers) and polyacid-modified resin composites (compomers). Disk-shaped specimens were prepared from the following materials: Vitremer, Fuji II LC, Photac-Fil, and Dyract. Three specimens of each product were irradiated with a light-curing device and three were not. Barcoll hardness was determined on both sides of the specimen 10 minutes after irradiation and after 48 hours of immersion in 37 degrees C water. A factorial design was used to evaluate the factors that influenced the results. The Dyract group that was not light cured was not included in the analysis beca use the product did not harden under this circumstance. Analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of material, time, and specimen side when light curing was carried out. The use or nonuse of light curing was also significant. For some hybrid ionomers (eg, Photac-Fil), light curing is a more essential step than for others to obtain adequate hardness values.