Microabraded enamel acquires a highly polished surface of mineralized tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine if microabraded enamel surfaces are more resistant to demineralization. Twenty extracted permanent incisors were used in the experiment. Four treatment modalities were investigated: (1) microabrasion in conjunction with a topical fluoride treatment, (2) topical fluoride treatmen, (3) microabrasion, and (4) no treatment. All surfaces, following their respective treatment regimen, were stored in artificial saliva for 2 months and then exposed to an artificial caries system for 5 days. Teeth treated with microabrasion followed by a 4-minute application of 1% neutral topical sodium fluoride exhibited significantly less enamel demineralization when subjected to an artificial caries challenge than did teeth that underwent microabrasion alone, topical fluoride treatment alone, or no treatment at all.