Oral candidosis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection encountered in dentistry. Normally a benign inhabitant of mucous membranes, the fungal organism, Candida albicans, may present serious, even life-threatening infection in specific patient populations. As an opportunistic organism, Candida albicans is extremely responsive to any process resulting in immunosuppression. The clinical manifestations of oral candidosis are variable, occasionally complicating the clinical diagnosis and management. Treatment is often initially rendered based on a provisional clinical diagnosis and supplemented with adjunctive laboratory tests. Specific therapeutic intervention should be tailored to the individual patient, based on the current health status of the patient and the clinical presentation and severity of the infection.