Erosive tooth wear appears to be no less frequent in the United States than in the United Kingdom and Europe and is of increasing concern as a significant cause of tooth destruction in younger persons. Consumption of numerous dietary sources of acids is increasing in modern societies. In addition, involuntary regurgitation may be a significant cause of tooth erosion. These primary causes can be exacerbated by xerostomia, which is induced by many drugs. Initial preventive treatments are directed at neutralizing the effects of the acids, and initial restorative treatments should be conservative, using adhesive materials. Treatment of advanced tooth tissue loss is difficult and expensive, and preventive management is emphasized.