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Quintessence International



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Quintessence Int 43 (2012), No. 5     15. Mar. 2012
Quintessence Int 43 (2012), No. 5  (15.03.2012)

Page 387-395, PubMed:22536590

Potential surface alteration effects of laser-assisted periodontal surgery on existing dental restorations
Kilinc, Evren / Rothrock, James / Migliorati, Erica / Drukteinis, Saulius / Roshkind, David M. / Bradley, Paul
Objective: Laser-assisted gingivectomies are performed in proximity to teeth, existing restorations, and implants. In case of accidental exposures, a detrimental surface defect may cause failure. Surface interactions should be evaluated for safety margin determination of certain laser-material combinations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the microscopic and visible effects of CO2, Nd:YAG, and 810-nm diode laser irradiations on various dental materials and tooth tissue.
Method and Materials: Study samples were fabricated (10 × 7.5 mm irradiation surface area, 1 mm thickness) from eight material groups (amalgam, base metal, gold, palladium-silver, composite, ceramic, titanium, and extracted tooth slices). Laser irradiations were performed with CO2, Nd:YAG, and 810- nm diode lasers using the manufacturer's recommended settings for gingivectomy at a 45-degree angle for 30 seconds. Irradiated surfaces were evaluated under SEM at 200× and 1,000× magnifications. Standardized photographs were obtained using a camera mount system (10× high-definition macro lens). The SEM images and photographs were correlated to determine surface interactions.
Results: Nd:YAG detrimentally affected all metallic materials and tooth structures. CO2 altered amalgam, gold, and palladium-silver slightly, whereas composite, ceramic, and tooth surfaces were detrimentally altered. The 810-nm diode altered amalgam, gold, titanium, palladium-silver, and composite but only gold and palladium-silver surfaces were barely traceable.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, surface effects were all instant; therefore, even a short accidental exposure may be destructive in some laser-material combinations. During gingivectomies, CO2 near tooth-colored restorations and Nd:YAG near metallic restorations and implants should be used carefully. The 810-nm diode was found to be safer due to its reversible alterations in only some materials. Further in vivo studies are necessary to clinically apply the outcomes of this study.

Keywords: dental materials, gingivectomy, soft tissue layers, surface