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Quintessence Int 43 (2012), No. 2     15. Jan. 2012
Quintessence Int 43 (2012), No. 2  (15.01.2012)

Page 105-110, PubMed:22257871


Analysis of soft tissue display in Chinese subjects during an enjoyment smile
Hu, Xiulian / Lin, Ye / Heberer, Susanne / Nelson, Katja
Objective: Due to global migration, clinicians often see patients with different ethnic backgrounds. Planning esthetic prosthodontic treatment for patients with different ethnicities can be a challenge. The aim of this study is to analyze the smile features of Chinese individuals.
Method and Materials: Sixty-two Han-Chinese subjects with a mean age of 28.5 years were enrolled and photographed. Standardized digital photographs were made to measure the height of displayed maxillary gingivae, papillae, and teeth during an enjoyment smile. The data were then compared with the data acquired from Caucasians in a previous study. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test and two-factorial nonparametric analysis.
Results: The mean display of the central incisors was 10 mm, with no significant difference between sexes (P = .74). The mean amount of display of the molars and premolars was significantly lower in Chinese (P < .001) than in Caucasians. The mean displayed gingiva in all subjects (n = 62) was 1.3 mm (0 to 8 mm). There was no significant difference between sexes (P > .05), but there was a significantly lower display of gingiva at the molars in Chinese (P < .001). Of all the subjects, 16.1% (n = 10) displayed gingivae from the central incisor to the first molar with a mean gingival height of 2.8 mm. The subjects showed a mean papilla height of 3.4 mm (0 to 11.6 mm) with no significant difference between sexes (P > .05). Again, a significantly lower display of papilla at the molar (P < .001) was found in Chinese. Of all subjects, 43.5% (n = 27) of all subjects showed papilla from the central incisor to the first molar. The mean papilla height of these subjects was 3.9 mm. All subjects displayed at least one papilla.
Conclusion: The results indicate that pink esthetics is a prime factor for both Chinese men and women in the esthetic restoration from the central incisors to the premolars.

Keywords: denture, esthetics, lip dynamic, smile