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Quintessence International



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Quintessence Int 41 (2010), No. 9     1. Sep. 2010
Quintessence Int 41 (2010), No. 9  (01.09.2010)

Page 779-785, PubMed:20806103

Salivary calcium concentration in relation to periodontal health of female tobacco smokers: A pilot study
Kiss, Endre / Sewon, Liisi / Gorzó, István / Nagy, Katalin
Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the possibility of differences in the calcium concentration of the saliva between smoker and nonsmoker patients with or without periodontitis.
Method and Materials: A total of 44 women were enrolled in this study. Exclusion criteria were severe general health problems, the prescription of medication, and fewer than 16 remaining teeth. The study population comprised 24 smokers (4 periodontitis free, 16 with chronic and 4 with aggressive periodontitis; mean age 50.2 years ± 6.9) and 20 nonsmokers (10 periodontitis free, 9 with chronic and 1 with aggressive periodontitis; mean age 54.7 years ± 15.6). Clinical parameters (bone loss; plaque, gingival and calculus indices; and pocket depth) were recorded, and stimulated saliva samples were collected. The calcium concentration of each saliva sample was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis was performed with the MANOVA test.
Results: The mean salivary calcium level in the smokers (57.76 µg/mL ± 18.8) was significantly (P < .05) higher than in the nonsmokers (44.6 µg/mL ± 7.8). Periodontal examination revealed significantly greater bone loss, a deeper mean probing depth, and a higher amount of calculus (P < .05) among the smokers. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the smokers and the nonsmokers as concerns the plaque and bleeding indices.
Conclusions: Within their limits, the present findings seem to indicate that patients with periodontitis who smoke exhibit higher salivary calcium levels than those in nonsmokers. However, the clinical significance of these findings remains to be determined in large-scale controlled studies.

Keywords: calculus, nonsmokers, oral hygiene, periodontitis, salivary calcium level, smokers