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Quintessence Int 50 (2019), No. 10     4. Oct. 2019
Quintessence Int 50 (2019), No. 10  (04.10.2019)

Page 792-801, doi:10.3290/j.qi.a43152, PubMed:31538147


Effect of patient- and surgery-related factors on supracrestal tissue reestablishment after crown lengthening procedure
Hamasni, Fatmé Mouchref / Majzoub, Zeina A. K.
Objectives: The standard application of a mean value of 2.04 mm for the biologic width has been demonstrated to result in inconsistent amounts of tooth extension following a crown lengthening procedure. Biologic width has been replaced by the supracrestal gingival tissue dimension, which includes the biologic width and sulcular depth. The question whether supracrestal gingival tissue dimension established at tissue maturation following a crown lengthening procedure is not significantly different from the presurgical dimension has not been fully answered. The primary objectives of the present prospective clinical study were to compare the preoperative and the 24-week dimensions of supracrestal gingival tissue following a crown lengthening procedure and assess the alterations in gingival margin position. A secondary objective was to assess selected patient- and surgery-related factors on supracrestal gingival tissue reestablishment.
Method and materials: Twenty adult systemically healthy patients requiring a crown lengthening procedure were recruited for the study. A crown lengthening procedure was performed at 33 teeth and the patients were followed up to 24 weeks. The following parameters were recorded using customized stents for measurement reproducibility: stent-gingival margin (baseline, immediately after surgery, and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks), stent-bottom of sulcus (baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks), stent-bone crest (baseline, at completion of osseous resection, and at 24 weeks), bone thickness (baseline, postsurgery), buccal gingival thickness (baseline, 24 weeks), and radiographic interproximal bone width (baseline, 24 weeks). Supracrestal gingival tissue, crown extension, and distance between the immediate postoperative position of the gingival margin relative to the contoured bone crest (F) were calculated.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences between supracrestal gingival tissue measurements at baseline and at 24 weeks for any of the four tooth sides. Crown extension remained significantly increased at 24 weeks compared to baseline for all sides, with the largest amounts of gingival creeping mesially and distally. A highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.97, P < .001) was demonstrated between flap positioning and stability of the gingival margin during the healing period. The closer was the F measurement to baseline supracrestal gingival tissue dimension, the less change in gingival margin was observed.
Conclusions: The preliminary results of this investigation suggest the following: The presurgical supracrestal gingival tissue dimension can be used as a guideline measurement in crown lengthening procedures as it is reestablished with a similar apico-coronal dimension 24 weeks postoperatively; and crown extension is stable when the distance between the sutured gingival margin and the contoured osseous crest is similar to the preoperative supracrestal gingival tissue dimension.

Keywords: biologic width, crown lengthening, flap positioning, osseous resection, supracrestal gingival tissue